The topic of modes and there use is a huge one. You will find that players influenced by Jazz use modal thinking more than pure blues players. Robin Ford has some lessons on U Tube you might try those. Joe Pass as well
In metal you were playing mostly over "power chords" with just the root and fifth and most often implying a minor tonality. Blues are usually played over a chord that has the third defined and may well be a minor blues but make some of your modal ideas very dissonant.
If your interested in "Gypsy Jazz". Django Reinhardt etc your Phrygian licks will work well
Pentatonics are usable over a entire progression in some blues but modal and scale ideas may require more of a multi root thinking. If your comfortable with this it can open up some great ideas but many find it a little confusing.
In the key of C you could play C Mixolydian over the C, F Mixolydian over the F and G mixolydian over the G for eg.
Heres the sound of Mixolydian http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tk0BoZBdvqI
More usefull than the scales and modes are the arpeggios that may be contained within them.
In blues we see the use of minor ideas like the minor pentatonic used against a major chord. (major against minor though is not a good idea)
Expanding this idea to using other minor based harmonies is a staple of blues based Jazz. Intros, turnarounds etc are great places for these. Try a Harmonic or Melodic minor two five one as an intro and see.
In minor modes and scales the Five chord is usually an altered chord (the 5th and/or 9th are raised or lowered).
The five chord in blues is a great place to employ some of these ideas. The dissonance only serves to aid the need for these chords to resolve to the 1 or tonic chord.
Try some of your Phrygian and Dorian ideas over the 5 chord when it goes to the 1 chord next.